Friday, March 27, 2020
American express plays a major role in helping merchants to buy and sell their goods and services. It provides advanced payment services to its clientÃ¢â¬â¢s travel and expense management solutions for all sizes of businesses.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Metadata and Tools in American Express specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More American express processes millions of transactions due to the high number of members around the world. It also assists small enterprise owners in purchasing and controlling their finances. American express also operates one of the largest travel networks for consumers and businesses. Metadata is organized information that describes, explains and locates data, and even makes data retrieval easier (Smiraglia, 2005). The data could be information about a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s physical data, technical and business processes. One of the importances of metadata is to ensure consistency in definit ions. Metadata constitutes data that helps in differentiating terms such as a client, and a customer. Meta data also helps in ensuring the clarity of relationships. Meta data is essential in ensuring consistency when identifying the relationships between entities stored in a database. Meta data also ensures the clarity of data lineage. Metadata maintains the storage of information in the correct formats, location and steward. It is important for a large company such as American express to have a reliable system of data storage. With its large number of users, it is important that the company implements a data storage system that will help in effective data storage, retrieval and manipulation. With slightly over 104 million active card users, 63,500 employees and assets worth $153 dollars, the company needs to have an effective and efficient data storage system. American express has embraced the use of advanced technology, whereby, consumers pay for products online, a process that en hances speed and convenience. Develop a high-level plan that describes the steps you would use to create enterprise-level metadata The first step that will be taken to ensure easier creation of metadata is to gather enough information before beginning the project. It is important to consider getting reliable data storage resources that can accommodate all data, which is likely to multiply and consume large disk space.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important to understand the data with regard to aspects of its intended purpose, its validity, resources used to create it, what it represents and how it will be presented (Smiraglia, 2005). The second step in creating the metadata is to review other examples of metadata that have been successful. This is conducted by examining how well other companies store their data and utilize the metadata system. This factor helps in determining the most appropriate strategy for the company (Smiraglia, 2005). The next step will involve selecting the most appropriate and easily available resources. The resources to be used should have a user friendly interface to enhance easy usability of the system. This will be important in reducing the time taken to enter values in their respective fields. It will be advisable to first use data resources that are easily available while entering the data, so as to enhance accuracy. The final step after entering the data is to parse the records. The parsing process reviews all the values and structures of the record with an aim of ensuring accuracy. This is done by identifying all existing errors in the metadata. It is important to run the parsing process over and over again until no errors are identified. Develop examples of metadata specific to the context of your chosen organization that would demonstrate how the metadata stack would be useful within context of a particul ar implementation The implementation of metadata will play a major role in the data storage and management of American express. American express needs to store huge amounts of data related to the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ details as well as all other transactions. All the information about the registered consumers and clients is stored in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s database. When a new client signs up to be a card holder, he or she provides all his or her basic information, which is then stored in the database. All the transaction information that is carried out using the active cards is stored in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s database. This data requires to be organized in a consistent way. If the metadata is implemented, it will help in differentiating between terminologies which are close to having the same meaning. The metadata will also play the role of identifying the relationships between the data stored in the database. This will identify the relationship between entities entered using different wor ds, but that have the same meaning. If the metadata is implemented at American express, it will allow room for manipulating the data while making changes, deleting the data or correctly formatting the data (Caplan, 2003).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Metadata and Tools in American Express specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another benefit that the American express will have from the implementation of metadata and proper information management is that it will have additional and quicker time to advertise new products in the market. Additionally, there will be smooth product data integration in case of changes in the company because data all data will be presented together (Caplan, 2003). Additionally, the company will have a clear view of its performance; hence, it will be able to easily monitor changes in the market. Analyze the role of ETL tools in the overall master data management project Master data managem ent is the process of creating and managing data. Here, the organization must have a master copy that is referred to as the master data (Loshin, 2010). The master data mostly comprises of information about clients, employees and products. The importance of master data management is because it offers one copy of data that is accurate and clearly defined. In the absence of a master data, there is a possibility of having other copies of data that are not consistent with each other (Gordon, 2003). To ensure the privacy of data stored, the organization should hire reliable personnel to handle it. Some of the tools required for the implementation of master data management include ETL tools, data quality tools, data profiling tools, database, web server, messaging server, test management server and the work flow tool (Loshin, 2010). The ETL tool is used in the data integration section of the master data management implementation to alternate, standardize and transfer data to the master dat a management hub. Most of the master data management vendors have the ETL tool integrated into the application while others have the ETL tool presented as a separate application (Gordon, 2003). Outline factors that would play a role in the selection of appropriate tools that would contribute to the success of a master data management project within the context of your chosen organization As stated before, there are various tools that are integrated in the creation of master data management projects. Different master data management vendors utilize different types of tools. There are a number of factors that organizations are required to consider while making a choice on the master data management integration tool to use.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the factors companies need to consider includes the factors that will be affected by the implementation of that tool. In the case of American express, ETL is the best choice of integration tool because all the data is loaded in to one hub where it can only be accessed by authorized personnel. This is important in ensuring data security and privacy (Gordon, 2003). Another factor that companies should consider in choosing a master data management integration tool is the size of the company. The integration tools preferred for small companies may differ from those chosen for large companies. Large multinational companies such as American express will go for the high standing MDM vendors in the market since they have a wider experience in handling data management challenges (Loshin, 2010). Companies should also consider their background and past experiences so as to determine their performance in the market. For smaller sized companies, the choice of the vendor may depend on thei r suitability. Higher standing MDM vendors are likely to charge higher prices as compared to the lower vendors in the market. It is important for the company to assess the vendorÃ¢â¬â¢s prices in the market to determine whether they can afford the services (Dubov, 2007). Larger multinational organizations such as American express are not likely to consider the prices in the market, as they focus more on the quality of the services being provided (Loshin, 2010). Another factor that should be considered is the probability of change in the management of the company. The management determines how data is managed, and how the attributes are added. In the case of change in management, the tools to be used should have the ability to store the history of data (Dubov, 2007). The final factor that should be considered when choosing the MDM vendor is the availability of a data backup system. A large multinational company such as American express must have a reliable data backup. References C aplan, P. (2003). Metadata Fundamentals: For All Librarians: Chicago: American Library Association. Dubov, L. (2007). Master Data Management and Customer Data Integration for a Global Enterprise: New York: Morgan Kaufmann. Gordon, K. (2003). Principles of Data Management: Facilitating Information Sharing: London: The Chartered Institute. Loshin, D. (2010). Master Data Management. Massachusetts: Morgan Kaufmann. Smiraglia, P. (2005). Metadata: A CatalogerÃ¢â¬â¢s Primer. London: Routledge. This essay on Metadata and Tools in American Express was written and submitted by user Sara L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Quantitative easing Quantitative easing Look out for the latest innocent-sounding financial buzz-phrase that hides some very big news indeed. This one sounds more benign than sub-prime loans. Yet its effects could be just as far reaching, if not more so. That phrase is quantitative easing. It may sound like the lesson you forgot in physics class, as Gerard Baker of The Times has put it. But its actually what governments do when theyve run out of options. It means, essentially, printing more money. Its what the Japanese central bank did when its economy went belly-up in 2001. (It had already driven interest rates close to zero.) As we write, UK business secretary Lord Mandelson is strongly denying that quantitative easing is even on the agenda. But the US Federal Reserve has already decided to do it, in order to buy up long-term debt. The theory is this lowers the interest rates on these assets, so that loans in general become cheaper and money starts to move around the economy again. A cynic might say that the jargon is there to hide whats really going on, just as collateral damage sounds better than killing innocent civilians. Whether thats true or not, youre likely to hear it more and more soon: when we searched on Google for the (exact) phrase we got well over three hundred thousand results.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
How did religion and socio-economic factors challenges to reform under the Qajars in Iran from the mid-19th to early 20th century - Essay Example This paper will discuss the manner in which religion and socio-economic factors challenged reform under the Qajars in Iran from the mid-19th to early 20th century. In any society, religion is an important aspect especially in development and reforms issues. In the Iranian society, between the periods of mid-19th century and early 20th century, reformation occurred in terms of nationality, identity, politics and the constitution. In these reformations, religion was an important aspect. Islam was the main and most famous religion in Iran and reflected the definite economic trends and the changes in class interests, property relations and social tendencies. Islam was an integral part of leadership, political, economic and social lives of people in Iran at this time. Thus, it influenced the type of reformation that occurred in the country. During the Qajar dynasty in Iran, the political leadership and governance of the country was a weak centralized regime that had strong provincial tribal forces and an independent religious establishment (Lapidus, 2002:65). European conquests, cultural influence and economic expedition made the state and society weak and encouraged constitutional revolution. However, Islam opposed the reformations that were introduced by the Europeans especially because the reforms were seen as a conflict of religious interest between Christianity from Europe and Islam that had existed in Iran for a good while. For instance, Europeans wanted women to be educated similarly to men, something that Islam was against because according to its customs, women were not the same as men, were not allowed to get an education but remain at home, and serve their families (Nomani & Behdad, 2006:127). The fact that the Qajars wanted to maintain a tenuous suzerainty enhanced the power of the religious establishments. The independence of the religious establishment hit the Qajars hard. The Ulama of Iran had a strong
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Summaries of the articles - Article Example The course that I am doing is purely about marketing. It involves who businesses should correctly market themselves in order to achieve the competitive advantage. The factors that affect the business environment are the same things that appear in my course. Therefore, this article is relevant in helping me confirm the things that I have learnt about the business environment. Understanding these factors from a different source is significant to allowing me to better understand the course or simply how marketing works. I learnt the variables, which form the environment of marketing strategy planning. I now comprehend why company goals are significant in directing marketing strategy planning. I also now see how the resources of a business influence the search for opportunities. I also know how the diverse forms of competitive situations influence strategy planning. Finally, I understand how the technological and economic environment can influence strategy
Monday, January 27, 2020
A Study On Badrinath Tourism Essay Nestled in the shadow of the Nilkantha peak, in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand, lies one the the most revered shrines for Hindu pilgrims Badrinath. Badrinath is in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, in the Garhwal hills, and lies on the banks of the Alakhnanda river. Significance The town of Badrinath has always found a prominent mention in religious Hindu texts and scriptures and was established as a major pilgrimage site in the ninth century by Adi Shankara. Mythology has it that Lord Vishnu had chosen this town for penance to ensure the welfare of all beings. Badrinath is also one of the char dhams (the four abodes) that have tremendous religious significance amongst devout Hindus. Attractions The Badrinath Temple: The temple, built by Adi Shankara, is the prominent attraction of Badrinath and attracts thousands of visitors every year who come to seek the divine blessings of Lord Vishnu. The main shrine houses the balck stone idol of Lord Badrinarayan sitting under a gold canopy, under a Badri tree. Lord Badrinath is the presiding deity but there are several other deities that are worshipped at this temple. Tapt Kund: Believed to be the abode of Agni, the Hindu God of fire, Tapt kund is a thermal spring that devotees take a holy dip before entering the Badrinath temple. The spring is also said to have curative properties.Other famous natural springs that can be found at Badrinath are Narad Kund and Suraj Kund. Brahma Kapal: On the banks of the river Alakhnanda, this is where pilgrims perform rites for their departed near and dear ones. Sheshnetra: This is a rock boulder with an impression of Sheshnag, a mythological serpent. You can also visit Charanpaduka a boulder that bears Lord Vishnus footprints. Alka Puri: Is where the daring tourist goes in search of adventure. This place is famous for white water rafting. Panch Prayag: While in Badrinath, be sure to visit the Panch Prayag, again of religious importance. Devprayag is famous for its rock inscriptions, Rudranath is famous for Chamunda Devi temple, Nandaprayag is known for the Gopalji temple, Karnaprayag for temples of Uma Karna and Vishnuprayag is the place where people flock to visit the Lord Vishnu temple. How to Reach You could fly to Jolly Grant, about 300 km from Badrinath, and then hitch a bus ride to Badrinath. The nearest rail station is Rishikesh which is 297 km from Badrinath. Being a place of religious significance, Badrinath is well connected by road to the tourist spots nearby namely Rishikesh, Haridwar Dheradun from where you could take a bus and ride to Badrinath. We recommend the bus ride as you will get to see breathtaking scenery on the way to Badrinath.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
How complete are our textbooks these days? Yes, they may cover Christopher ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s all the way to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s current events. But just how complete are they? Often books tend to lean a certain direction, and offer perspective from only one point of view; most commonly the views of the victors, dominant country or possibly stories of heroes. What about the other side? Far too often the lesser of the two is left out of the textbooks and out of our minds. There are always two sides to a story, in this case, much of what we read is a mere, Ã¢â¬Å"partial truthÃ¢â¬ . In the following paragraphs and analysis, assumptions and generalizations we have made about our country and itÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"heroesÃ¢â¬ will be examined in an in-depth interpretation of the standard American textbook, The Enduring Vision vs. Howard ZinnÃ¢â¬â¢s, A PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s History of the United States, a strongly worded book meant to offer a different point of view, one not of the hero, but of men they truly were. Everyone knows who discovered America, Christopher Columbus, of course! Ã¢â¬Å"In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blueÃ¢â¬ At a very young age we are taught that, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s only half the story. According to, The Enduring Vision, Ã¢â¬Å"Religious Fervor led Columbus to dream of carrying Christianity around the globe, but he also hungered for wealth and glory. Ã¢â¬ (p. 27) Upon discovery, Columbus became very fond of himself, and what he had done. He discovered a land and a people that before his discovery never existed. Because of this, ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s hunger for wealth and glory came to the forefront. The textbook makes no mention of the less publicized portions of his life; it certainly was not carrying Christianity to the world. The book fails to mention, the cruel and inhumane things that were done to the Native American who currently inhabited the Ã¢â¬Å"New WorldÃ¢â¬ . Those actions seem to be brushed under the rug, because of the fact that he is an American hero. However, Howard Zinn offers a view from a different perspective. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦They willingly traded everything they ownedÃ¢â¬ ¦. They were well built, with good bodies and handsome featuresÃ¢â¬ ¦They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of caneÃ¢â¬ ¦. They would make fine servantsÃ¢â¬ ¦. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. Ã¢â¬ (Zinn 17) ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s lust for wealth, power, and domination of the people blinded his view of spreading Christianity. In ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s report back to the royal court in Madrid, Spain, Columbus uses religious talk to convince the court that he was establishing a community, and to establish fame and a reputation back in Spain. In exchange for a little help, Columbus was to bring them, Ã¢â¬Å"as much gold as they needÃ¢â¬ ¦ and as many slaves as they ask. Concluding his report he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His was over apparent impossibilitiesÃ¢â¬ (Zinn 20) this was not entirely true, his report was exaggerated, however, the court granted him his expanded fleet and men. However, Columbus was not out to colonize the new world, he was looking for his personal gain ; Gold, and slaves. This American Ã¢â¬Å"HeroÃ¢â¬ isnÃ¢â¬â¢t everything the history books and movies make him out to be. Columbus was a liar, cruel, and was out for glory and fame. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a sad truth to such an important piece of an American history. As American we would like to believe that Columbus was the man he was made up to be, and definitely not a Ã¢â¬Å"Christ-likeÃ¢â¬ figure. He was much more than an explorer who owned a few slaves; he is a man responsible for the institution of slavery and the murder of many, many Native Americans. Another well-known figure in history has a distorted past, he happens to be one of our most respected presidents; Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson is perhaps most known for his hand in writing the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson was a major player in gaining our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s independence from England; he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t much for granting independence to a certain group of people in America. Although, it is noted that Jefferson had a personal distaste for slavery, that did not stop him from owning slaves, hundreds of slaves until the day he died. Jefferson even slipped a portion his views into the Declaration of Independence. It is a very common cliche phrase that is known by many, in which he lists property, in a list of Ã¢â¬Å"unalienableÃ¢â¬ rights. That among these are Life, Liberty, and propertyÃ¢â¬ However, Congress didnÃ¢â¬â¢t approve, and instead, they chose, Ã¢â¬Å"Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happinessÃ¢â¬ . Slaves were often referred to as property at that time, not human beings, but property, as if they were a possession. So, who really was Jefferson, was he a noble president, who still today remains a prominent figure in the history of the United States? Or was he just like everyone else, a slave owner, and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t truly believe that Ã¢â¬Å"All men are created equalÃ¢â¬ ? Personally, I believe that Jefferson was a product of the time period. Being a slave owner was common; he was in line with what wealthy plantation owners. He may have believed that slavery was not a moral institution, but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require him to being an abolitionist. According to Zinn, JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s paragraph was removed because, Ã¢â¬Å"slaveholders themselves with the desirability of ending the slave trade. Ã¢â¬ (Zinn 77) Thomas Jefferson was an extremely intelligent man, and I believe he wrote that, with the foresight of the country in mind. He knew that it should not be a part of America going forward, however, at the time; it was a part of life. In addition to that, Jefferson needed to keep his popularity high, and by ending the slave-trade, Jefferson would lose many of his supporters. For this I believe that in this case Zinn may be bias, he goes after every flaw in people we look up to, and we simply cannot expect them to be perfect. Yes, they may have made some mistake and at times be hypocritical, but everyone is guilty of that at some time in their life, especially at a time where presidents where selected on what they had done in battle, not in politics. The next difference comes in the form of another president. Andrew Jackson, the face of our twenty dollar bill. According to the textbook, Ã¢â¬Å"JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s victory over the British at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero, and southerners admired him as a Tennessee slaveholder, a renowned Indian fighter, and an advocate of Indian removalÃ¢â¬ 216). Many American regarded Jackson as a Ã¢â¬Å"Living link to a more virtuous past. Ã¢â¬ Upon, gaining the presidency, one of JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s first moves was to remove all the members of upper ranking officeholdersÃ¢â¬ ¦of the rival party. It was not well received by many; they began calling it the Ã¢â¬Å"spoils systemÃ¢â¬ . He defended his actions by conveying that it was on the basis of Democracy; so that more people could work for the government. Jackson often gave jobs to family members or friends before giving the public their fair shake. Jackson was also willing to give jobs to people who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t qualified, because he knew them. This wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only thing that Jackson took heat for; his Ã¢â¬Å"moralsÃ¢â¬ got him into more trouble. Jackson was easily bribed, and used deception as well as force to get what he wanted. Whether it was land or gold, Jackson was willing to use his power as president for his gain. Zinn 128) Zinn, points out the fact that this will never be printed in a text book, as Jackson is a face of this country. Ã¢â¬Å"If you look through high school textbooks and elementary school text books in American history you will find Jackson the frontiersman, soldier, democrat, man of the people-not Jackson the slaveholder, land speculator, executioner of dissident soldiers, exterminator of the Indians. Ã¢â¬ (Zinn 125) Strong and harsh words for a man, especially a president nonetheless. As we have seen in this and past examples, that Zinn emphasizes the other side of the story, the one you donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear about. Unfortunately, these are stories that everyone should know. Zinn, places an emphasis on teaching what the textbooks donÃ¢â¬â¢t, the textbooks focus on the spoils and fame of the individual. Howard Zinn provides an alternative view that sheds light on the morals of these men, which are not well publicized. Abraham Lincoln, the savior of the Union, often considered to be one of the best if not the best presidents in the history of the United States. However, this is one of the rare instances in which Zinn agrees with the textbook. For once, Zinn focuses on the results, rather the character. Lincoln didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that the African-Americans were his equal, but he did believe they had the rights of a human being; no human should be subject to being owned by another. However, LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s main priority was to preserve the Union, and to unite the States of America. The fact that Zinn agrees with the textbook in their positive view of Lincoln, shows the Zinn is not out to attack our great American Heroes. However, Zinn simply wishes for the other side of the story to be told, after all, all this stuff should be taught. Teaching as if this never happened, is like teaching addition without subtraction. Finally, we conclude with yet another president; our first President of the United States, George Washington: The fearless and ambitious leader that America looked to, to become our first president and lead the country in a positive direction. The Enduring Vision says it well, Ã¢â¬Å"American Victory depended on the ability of one man to keep his army fighting despite defeatÃ¢â¬ (120) WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s record in battle was poor, he lost more times than he won. However, the important part was that the people followed him. George was exceptionally tall for this time, so people naturally looked to him to lead them-despite losing. However, Washington was a slaveholder himself. Although, he did free them before he died. During the Revolutionary war, Washington did turn down a request of black slaves to fight in the army. (Zinn 83) Despite, his downfall, George Washington was an honorable man, who was the perfect choice for first President of the United States. Zinn tends to tarnish WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, with some of the things he chooses to publish; he gives Washington little credit for his accomplishments. In fact, I believe that WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s failures is what makes him such an insightful historical figure, failure spurred his ambition for bigger and better things. In conclusion, I have determined that much of what is printed is only partial truth. Thanks to Howard Zinn, people can explore the character that shaped out country. Although Zinn may seem to attack these men, he is simply pointing out that they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t the men they are made out to be in modern day history books and films. After reading, A PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s History of the United States, I am very pleased that someone decided that the truth must be told; even though it is not always what we want to hear.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Migration When the Light of Home is Abroad: Unskilled Female Migration and the Filipino Family * The article focuses on the Filipino female population migrating to Singapore and the difficulties they face while in their host country. Through interviews and extensive research the authors explore the relationships between Filipino migrant women and their families.The authors state, Ã¢â¬Å"Specifically, we explore how migrant women and their family members define and negotiate family ideals, gender identities and family relationships, given the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s transnational configuration. In other words, with women Ã¢â¬â regarded as the Ã¢â¬Å"light of the homeÃ¢â¬ (ilaw ng tahanan) Ã¢â¬â away from the family, how is family constituted and family life crafted by its constituent members both at home and abroad? Ã¢â¬ (Asis, Huang, Yeoh 199). * The idea of transnational family, having a bond while living in a host country, is interrelated with labour migrants.The authors define s transnational family as, Ã¢â¬Å"one where core members are distributed in two or more nation states but continue to share strong bonds of collective welfare and unity Ã¢â¬â is a strategic response to the changing social, economic and political conditions of a globalizing worldÃ¢â¬ (Asis, Huang, Yeoh 199). * Female migrants are constantly negotiating their identity and their role in their host countries which leads them to maintain ties through engaging actively or disengaging themselves from their families. Long distance calls from the migrant to the families is an example of active pursuit.The authors describe this constant negotiation of a migrantÃ¢â¬â¢s identity as Ã¢â¬Å"relativisingÃ¢â¬ (Asis, Huang, Yeoh 200). The concept of Ã¢â¬Å"relativisingÃ¢â¬ could also be formed through cultural differences from host countries. * Philippines, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka are three countries in Southeast Asia which encompass the largest amount of female migration. The authors states, Ã¢â¬Å"The Philippines is one of three countries in Asia where women migrants comprise between 60 and 80 percent of legal migrants deployed to other countries every yearÃ¢â¬ (Asis, Huang, Yeoh 203).Filipino women migrants increased due to a shift in labour needs during the 1980s. * The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s research provides interviews with female migrants and their families in Singapore and Philippines. The interview raises awareness of female migrantÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of connectivity with family members, especially children. Many children felt the absence of their mother shaped their family relationship in a negative context. In one example, two male children dropped out of school and upon their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival the children returned back to school.In this case the mother is seen as the enforcer which entails drives the children to attend school. The lack of face to face interaction between the female migrant and her family causes negative consequences to the migrant hers elf as well as her family. * The article also discusses the positive outcomes for female migrants while in their host country. Many of the migrants felt empowered by being able to provide a better life for their family. Many of the women provide remittances which in turn allowed for rebuilding of homes, school expenses, and food.Another positive outcome for female migrants was the respect they embraced from their husbands upon returning to their country of origin. Questions * How does the reconfiguration gender role affect female labour migrants while in their host country? * Filipino female migration alters the Ã¢â¬Å"family relationshipÃ¢â¬ and in doing so constructs a gap between the mothers and children. Is the economical factor worth the risk of losing the bond between the migrantÃ¢â¬â¢s children and the migrant hence affecting education for the children? * Can labour migrants maintain a sense of family and does the term Ã¢â¬Å"familyÃ¢â¬ alter when absent from the coun try of origin?